Connection of Sentences


Sometimes sentences are put together as they are, often expressing an antithesis.




Na te doṣaḥ ayam svāminaḥ doṣaḥ. (1)

‘This is not your fault, but that of your master.’


Otherwise, coordination is done with different particles or pronouns, e.g.:


ca ‘and’, api ‘and’, atha ‘now’






tu ‘but’, param ‘however’, punaḥ ‘again’, atha ‘also’



hi ‘because’



tat or tasmāt ‘therefore’, tataḥ ‘thence’, ataḥ ‘hence’, tarhi ‘in that case’,



These particles are also used within sentences.




Priyaṃvadaka, viśramyatām parijananena. Tvam api svam adhikāram aśūnyam kuru. (2)

‘Priyaṃvadaka, my attendants may ceep their rest and you, discharge your duty.’

Strīyaḥ hi nāma khalu enāḥ nisargāt eva paṇḍitaḥ. Puruṣāṇām tu pāṇḍityam śāstraiḥ eva upadiśyate (4)

‘Womankind, indeed, are wise by nature, but to men wisdom is to be taught by manuals.’


Subordinated sentences are caracterized by the relative ya or one of its many derivatives, e.g. yena, yatra, yāvat, yādṛśa, yataḥ and yathā. (Collectivly known here as ‘relatives’.)



The following rules apply:

The demonstrative is chiefly saḥ, tat, sā


The demonstrative and relative need not be of the same type.


The relative sentence is often put first.


The relative may be part of a compound


The relative may depend on a Abs, Part or an absolute case.


The relative is as rule put first in the sentence


In general propositions the relative sentence is often characterized by two or more relatives put close together.




Yeṣām tu yādṛśam karma bhūtānām iha kīrtitam,

tat tayā vaḥ abhidhāsyāmi. (9, 10, 11 & 14)

‘Now, what duties are assigned to the different beings in this world,

I will tell you.’

Sā aham etat na veda, yat-gotraḥ tvam asi. (9, 10, 11 & 12)

‘I do not know what gotra you are.’

Yaḥ yat jayati, tasya tat. (15)

‘That which one captures, is one’s own.’

Direct Construction with iti

(aka oratorio recta)



The outward forms of word and ideas are reproduced unaltered and followed by iti.


It usually preceeds the main sentence but when it follows it is often introduced by yat or yathā without changing its direct character.


Sometimes demonstratives as evam, ittham or Pron as eṣa, ayam, idam replaces iti.


Sometimes iti is just left out.




Expressing the object of knowing, thinking, believing, reflecting, doubting, rejoicing, wondering, etc. (These verbs are often left out but indicated by iti.)


Denotes the fact wich acts as a cause or motive


Signifying the object of purpose or wish




Jeṣyāmaḥ iti ucyante. (16)

‘We will conquer, so they said.’

Tam vada yad-anyaḥ bhṛtyaḥ vāhanāyāḥ mat-sthāne kriyatām. (17)

‘Tell him, he must appoint some other of his servants, instead of me,

to be his carrier.’

Svāmī evam vadati: cirāt dṛśyate. (18)

‘My master speaks thus: “it is long ago since I saw you”.’

Vane jalam iti Devadattena dhrutaḥ. (20)

‘[Beleiving that] there was water in the forest, Devadatta run away.’