Causative (C)

General meaning

C generally expresses:


Cause, ordering


Effecting an action


C with well established meanings are constructed as simple .



Intransitive verbs

The subject of the primitive is put in A





Devadattaḥ śate.

‘Devadatta lies.’

Rājā Devadattam śāyayati. (4)

‘The king makes Devadatta lie.’

Devadattaḥ Pāṭaliputram gacchati.

‘Devadatta goes to Pāṭaliputra.’

Rājā Devadattam Pāṭaliputram gamayati. (4)

‘The king makes Devadatta go to Pāṭaliputra.’


Transitive verbs

The subject of the primitive is often put in A


The subject of the primitive may also be put in I


AX AY C [NZ]: X is caused to do with Y [by Z]


AX IY C [NZ]: Y is caused to do with X [by Z]




In (7) the word order between the two A, X and Y, is important.



Mām kiñcit kārayati. (5)

‘He causes me to do something.’


Kiñcit kārayati mayā. (6)

‘I am the agent/instrument through which he acts.’


Saḥ ṛṣīn karam adāpayat. (7)

‘He made the holy men pay taxes.’


Tām śvabhiḥ khādayet rājā. (8)

‘The king should order her to be devoured by dogs.’



See Ps:C