Active voice (parasmaipada, P)


Middle voice (ātmanepada, Ā)


P is constructed as:


NSubj AObj PPred



Ā is constructed as:


NSubj AObj ĀPred




The original difference between P and Ā is that in P the fruit of the action is for others and in Ā for the subject.


Many only have forms in one of P or Ā.


Often there is no difference in meaning between P and Ā





Devadattaḥ āśam pacati (P)

‘Devadatta cooks food [for others]’

Devadattaḥ āśam pacate (Ā)

‘Devadatta cooks food [for himself]’


Passive voice (Ps)

(Cf. also Ps corresponding to double A and Ps with Imp)


Ps is very common i CS; in fact so common that when translating one often can translate to active english constructions.


Ps is constructed as:


ISubj AObj PsPred



Devadattena āśam pacyate

‘The food is cooked by Devadatta’


With participles:


ISubj NObj NPart



E.g. using a PPP:


Devadattena āśaḥ pacitaḥ

‘The food was cooked by Devadatta’

Passive of Causative


NX AY Ps:C [IZ]: X is caused to do with Y [by Z]


NX IY Ps:C [IZ]: Y is caused to do with X [by Z]



(8) is the more common type.



Kumāraḥ asmān ābharaṇam paridhāpitavān. (C7)

‘The prince has made us put on ornaments.’


Kumāreṇa vayam ābharaṇam paridhāpitā. (8)

‘The prince made us put on ornaments.’



Viṣakanyayā rākṣasaḥ ghātitavān tapasvinam Parvateśvaram. (C8)

‘The demon has killed the unhappy Parvateśvara by means of a viṣakanyā.’


Viṣakanyayā rākṣasena ghātitaḥ tapasvī Parvateśvaraḥ. (9)

‘The unhappy Parvateśvara was killed by the demon by means of a viṣakanyā.’