Verbal Nouns

Participles (Part)


may be used as simple attributive Adj.


serves to express attending cirumstances


are a concurrent idiom of subordinate sentences




Viruddhaḥ dharmaḥ. (1)

‘A forbidden law.’

Śṛgālaḥ kopa-āviṣṭaḥ, tam uvāca. (2)

‘The jackal being filled with anger, said to him.’

Ajalpataḥ, jānataḥ, te śiraḥ yāsyati khaṇḍa-śaḥ. (3)

‘If you do not say it, and know it, your head will fall off into a thousand pieces.’

Tyakṣyantī tām deśam, brāhmaṇa-sāda-kṛtaḥ vasatim svām. (3)

‘Being about to leave her country, she ceded her house to the brahmans.’


A Part added to a expressing some affection of the mind signifies a motive of the the affection


Part expresses the predicate of the object of a Main meaning seeing, hearing, knowing, thinking, feeling, conceiving, wishing etc. agreeing with the object of the Main (A in P., N i Ps).




Śocitavyaḥ tvam garvam gataḥ. (4)

‘One must pity you for having become proud.’

Mām praviśantam apaśyan. (5, Act)

‘He saw me enter.’

Aham anena praviśan adṛśye. (5. Ps)

‘By him, I was seen entering.’

Mām yuvānam apaśyan. (5)

‘He saw me being young.’ = ‘He saw, I was young.’


A PP with Pr of asti or bhavati is used as simple PP


A PP with ¬Pr of asti or bhavati is used in periphrastic contructions such as PastOpt and FutPf (done with PP and bhaviṣyati)


A PP with Pr of āste, tiṣṭhati, vartate, asti and bhavati expresses continous action.


Part with meaning not ceasing to do



Śrutam hi tena tad-abhūt. (7)

‘For he had heard this.’

Kim mayā apakṛtam rājñaḥ bhavet. (7)

‘In what can I have offended the king?’

Arthau dvau api niṣpannau, Yudhiṣṭhira, bhaviṣyataḥ. (7)

‘Both purposes, O Yudhiṣṭhira, will be performed!’

Cintayan vartate. (8)

‘He is reflecting.’

Sā yatnena rakṣyamāṇā tiṣṭhati. (8)

‘She is being guarded carefully.’

Siṃhaḥ nityam eva anekān mṛga-śaśaka-ādīn vyāpādayan na upararāma. (9)

‘The lion did not cease killing countless deers and rabbits etc.’


See also Absolute L and Abolute G.

Historical participles (HPt)


HPt denotes:


Historical past


Events that have lost their actuality


° °tavant used with the same meaning as Ao




Suptavān kumāraḥ. (12)

‘The boy slept.’


Gerundive (Ger)

Ger denotes:

duty, precept, obligation








Hantavyaḥ asmi na te, rājan. (13)

‘O King, do not kill me!’

Mayā avaśyam deṣa-antaram gantavyaḥ. (14)

‘I must by all means go abroad.’

Asmin latā-maṇḍape, saṃnihitayā tayā bhavitavyam. (15)

‘She is shure to be in the neighbourhood of the creeper-bower.’

Infinitive (Inf)


Inf denotes aim and purpose (equivalent with the D of purpose)




[na] śakyam ... Inf:

‘can [not] ... do


[na] yuktam ... Inf:

‘is [not] fit/suitable ... to do




Na ca me vidyate vittam saṃkretum puruṣam kvacit. (16)

‘And I have no money to buy some man somewhere.’

Tava tartum sāgara-gāminī nauḥ iyam. (16)

‘Here is a ship for you to cross the river.’

Śakyam sā draṣṭum. (17)

‘One can se her.’

Na yuktam iha sthātum. (18)

‘It isn’t fit to stay here.’

Absolutive (Abs)


Abs denotes the prior of two actions by the same Subj.


The subject of the sentence denoted by Abs is the logical subject.


Abs with āste, tiṣṭhati and vartate may signify a continuous action.




Ācāryaḥ, granthālayam gatvā, Kena-upaniṣadam paṭhati. (19)

‘The teacher, has gone to the library and reads the Kena-upaniṣad.’

Atha asau rājā tām pratijñām śrutvā, tasmai sādaram tān kumārān samarpya, parām nirvṛtim ājagāma. (19)

‘Then the king having heard this promise, entrusted his princes to him and was highly satisfied with this.’

Tasya dṛṣṭvā eva vavṛdhe kāmaḥ tām cāru-hāsinīm. (20)

‘His love increased as soon as he had beheld the fair one.’

Sarva-paurān atītya vartate. (21)

‘He is the foremost of all the townsmen.’