Present (Pr)


Pr denotes:


Any sphere of time of which ourselves are the centre


Ever-valid events


Continuing actions (durative)


Not completed actions


Near past


Near future


Historical present (facts ‘going on’ in the past, cf (3))


PrF + sma : duration in the past (cf (3))




Gacchāmi. (3)

‘I am going.’

Ayam āgacchāmi. (5)

‘I did just arrive here.’

Gacchāmi sma. (8)

‘I was going.’


Aorist (Ao)


Ao denotes:


Historical past


Actual past


Events that have lost their actuality




Akārṣam. (9 & 10)

‘I did.’ ‘I have done.’

Prītimān abhūt, uvāca ca enam. (11)

‘He was filled with affection, and said to him.’


Perfect (Pf)


Pf denotes:


Allmost always historical past; not witnessed by the speaker


There is no difference in meaning between simple and periphrastic Pf




Cakāra. (12)

‘He did’


Imperfect (Impf)


Impf denotes:


Always historical past, weather witnessed by the speaker or not.




Akarot. (14)

‘He did’


Future (Fu)


Simple Fu denotes:


General future events


Purpose, intention etc. (cf Des)



Periphrastic Fu denotes:


Events happening at an definite moment in the future


Events that have not yet gained actuality (remote Fu)




Brūhi, kva yāsyasi? (15)

‘Tell us, where are you going to go?’

Svārtham kariṣyāmi. (16)

‘I will attend to my own affair.’

Kaḥ ayam? Devaḥ gandharvaḥ vā bhaviṣyati. (16)

‘Who is this? Doubtless a god or a Gandharva.’

Vaktāsmaḥ idam devebhyaḥ. (17)

‘We shall tell this to the gods.’

Katham tu bhavitāsi eka? (17)

‘But how will you get along alone?’