Pronouns (Pn)

Here are some short notes on Pn.

Personal Pn (PPn)

Enclitic forms are never used when there is stress on the PPn (eg. after a V. or particles like ca, , ha, aha, eva)


2:PPn is used without respect to social relations


Address in polite manner is done with bhavat (f. bhavatī) agreeing with the 3rd person of the



Reflexive Pn

sva serves as reflexive Pn (most often with possessive meaning).


ātman is used as a reflexive Pn


In Ps sentences the reflexive refers to the agent.




Sarpaḥ tena ātmanā sva-ālayam nītaḥ. (4 & 5)

‘He, himself, brought the serpent to his own house.’


Demonstrative Pn (DPn)

ayam and not eṣaḥ is the proper word for denoting something that belongs to the speaker.


saḥ points to something known.




Ayam bāhuḥ. (7)

‘This arm of mine.’

Interogative Pn (?Pn)

kaḥ: who/what/which?


katara: whether which [of two]?


katama: who [of many]?




Kaḥ bhavān? (3 & 9)

‘Who are you?.’

Devadattaḥ etayoḥ katara? (10)

‘Which of these two are Devadatta?’


Indefinite Pn

Indefinite Pn are contructed as ?Pn cit api cana


eka besides one also means some and a




Kena cit pustakam apanītam. (12)

‘The book was stolen by someone.’

Aham ca eka-iṣuṇā hataḥ. (13)

‘I am hit by an arrow.’

Relative Pn (RPn)

Putting together saḥ and yaḥ in the same case, gender and number means: whosoever it may be, any


yaḥ yaḥ ... saḥ saḥ means whosoever ... he


For more on RPn see: Connection of sentences.




Yaḥ kaścit mām draṣṭum icchati, saḥ tvayā praveśayitavyaḥ. (14)

‘Whosoever it may be that wishes to see me, you must admit him.’