√ 1 hṛ, “take”


1 hṛ

2 hṛ


I. hárati etc. V.+,-te etc. V.+

II. harmi RV1

III. jiharti S1


hriyáte etc. AV.+,-ti etc. E.+


Simple Future: hariṣyati -te etc. B.+ (ahariṣyat etc. B.U.)

Periphrastic Future: hartā B.E


√-Ao: ahṛthās JB.; ahāri C. hriyāt

RAo: ajīharat

-s-Ao: ahārṣīt etc. V.B.U.S.E. (ahār AV.B.; hāriṣīt S1.), ahṛṣata RV. hṛṣīṣṭa


jahāra jahrus etc. AV.+ (jahártha B.+; jaharus ? AV.), jahre etc. B.+


hārayati etc. B.+,-te etc. B.S. (hāryate etc. E.+); harayanta RV1


jíhīrṣati etc. AV.+ (-ṣayte C.)


jarīharti C. jarhṛ-, jehrīya-

Verbal Nouns

PPP: hṛtá V.+; Inf: hártum B.+,-tave C1., -tavaí B.S.,-tos B.S., haritum R1.; 1Abs: hṛtvā B.S.;-hṛ́tya AV.+; 2Abs: -hā́ram B.+


-hara U.S.+


háraṇa AV.+


-hṛt V.+


jihīrṣā E.+


hāra V.+


-haraṇīya E.+


hṛti B.+


jihīrṣu E.+


-hāraka E.+


-hāraṇa C.


-hṛ́tya B.


-hārayitavya C.


hārin E.+


háras V.+


hartavya E.+




hāryà AV.+


hā́ruka B.


hartṛ B.+





Apparently a variant to √ bhṛ; making a very small figure in the oldest language, it gains rapidly in use, and becomes extremely common.



hárati hárate v (harti, jiharti), PPP hṛtá (q.v.) P hold, carry, bring; offer, present (esp. balim); hand over to (G); seize, steal, carry away, remove, turn off (face); Ā (P) take, receive (taxes), come into possession of (as heir); take to wife, marry; get hold or become master of; overpower, outdo, surpass; win over, captivate, charm; seize upon, take away, withdraw, retain, destroy, frustrate. Caus. hārayati cause to hold or carry (2A), cause to be held, taken etc. by (I); get hold of, seize upon; permit to be carried of, lose (esp. in game). Des jíhīrṣati wish to take away, desire, covet.


ati carry beyond (A). vyati transpose mutually.

adhi carry over (A).

anu imitate, resemble (A or G).

apa carry away, take off, remove, separate from (Ab); seize, rob, steal; overpower, frustrate, destroy.

abhi hand over, offer, present; Caus. place before, serve (food), put on (mail).

ava draw in, move down, put off. abhyava throw down into (A), bring near, take, eat, enjoy. Caus. cause to throw or be thrown; attack, assail; eat, feed. vyava move hither and thither; transpose, exchange; communicate or have intercourse with (I or L); meet, encounter (as foes), fight with (I sārdham); proceed, act, deal with (L); trade or traffic (L, I, or G); be active, work; be intent upon (A); *bet, play (w. G of stake); *manage, use, employ (A). P. be called or named.

ā bring near, attract, fetch, get, procure, offer, present, give; receive, accept; take to wife, marry; eat, enjoy; take away, sever, remove, destroy, turn off, withdraw from (Ab); utter show, betray; name, call. Caus. cause to bring near etc., cause to pay (taxes etc., 2A); procure, acquire; eat, enjoy; utter, manifest. Des be willing to procure or acquire. anvā repair, complete, supply. abhyā offer, present. udā bring near, fetch, bring out, say, tell, quote (esp. as an example), recite, enumerate, praise, commend; P. be called, mentioned, or quoted. abhyudā bring hither. prabhyudā answer; quote (as a counter example). samudā say, tell, mention. upā fetch, get, procure, offer, present, take hold of, win, acquire, undertake, accomplish. samupā fetch, procure, offer, present, undertake, commence. upanyā offer, present. paryā hand over; turn, invert. pratyā draw back, withdraw, get back, recover; take up again, carry on, prosecute; utter, tell, report. vyā bring out, utter, speak to or with (A or saha), sing (of birds). anuvyā utter successively or in its turn, (answer by singing*); abuse, revile, curse. abhivyā utter, pronounce, recite; bespeak, charm with words, conjure, curse. Caus. (cause to) utter or pronounce. pravyā utter, speak. samā bring together, gather, collect, assemble, combine, comprehend; draw back, withdraw, bring back, restore; captivate, charm. anusamā arrange or put in order (again).

ud take out or from (Ab), stretch out (pāṇim); offer, present; lift up, raise, further, strengthen; set aside, select; choose, prefer; extricate, rescue, save; take away, cut off, sever (head), remove, destroy; except. Caus. (cause to) draw out or rescue. Des wish to save or relieve. abhyud take or draw out (in addition), lay aside; rescue, save, recover; start, further, promote. samabhyud, prod & pratyud draw out, lift up, rescue, relieve, promote, further. samud draw or take out, rescue, deliver from (Ab); deduct; remove, destroy; lift up etc. = prec.

upa bring, fetch, proffer, present; Ā accept, receive, gather, collect. Caus. proffer, serve (food).

nis take or carry out, extract, export (goods); Ā remove, exclude or deliver from (Ab); get rid of (A); change or mix with (I). vinis draw out, extract, take (vṛddhim interest); remove, destroy.

pari carry or move about; surround, gird (Ā refl.); protect from (Ab); keep off, shun, avoid, beware, escape; save, spare, except. vipari transpose, interchange.

pra stretch forth; fix in, hurl upon (L); offer, present; strike, hurt; attack, assail (A, L, D, or G); Ā fight, make war. anupra throw into the fire. saṃpra hurl, cast; attack, assail (A or L); Ā (P) engage in battle, fight hand to hand.

prati throw, hold, or bring back; offer, present. Ā take, eat.

vi take apart, divide, separate; take or carry away; shed (tears); transpose, interchange; roam about, pass one's time (A) pleasantly, enjoy one's self.

sam bring or draw together, contract, collect, gather; take away, rob; suppress, absorb, destroy. upasam draw together or in, gather, contract, absorb, suppress. pratisam draw together or back, take off, avert, absorb, suppress, destroy, annihilate.

Cf. abhivyā́hṛta (sic!), uddhṛta, vihṛta, vyāhṛta.