Ablative (Ab)









Ab designates:


from or out of what place there is a starting and moving


from whence there is a withdrawal with words meaning separation and disjoining


what is kept of with and Part meaning keeping of etc. ...


the point from whence a distance is counted (used with ā, prabhṛti, etc. and añc, prāñc and all words meaning far, e.g. dūre.)


the time from, since, after etc. (often used with prep. ā, prabhṛti, ūrdhvam, anantaram, etc.)


from what origin there is a rising or issuing


the side something has come from


on what side (°taḥ prefered here)


the cause, reason, motive by which (esp. with °tva : ‘because’)




Purāt paṇḍitaḥ grāmam gataḥ. (1)

‘From the city the scholar went to the village.’

Bhavadbhyaḥ viyujitaḥ. (2)

‘Separated from you.’

Māṣebhyaḥ gāḥ vārayati. (3)

‘He keeps the cows from the beans.’

Gavīdhūmataḥ Sāṃkāśyam catvāri yojanāni. (4)

‘From Gavīdhūma to Sāṃkāśya there is four yojana-s.’

Saptāhāt paṇḍitaḥ gṛham gataḥ. (5)

‘The scholar went home after a week.’

Sarvāṇi imāni bhūtāni ākāśāt eva samutpadyante. (6)

‘All these things proceed from the ether alone.’

Sā tvattaḥ sammānam arhati. (7)

‘She deserves respect from your side.’

Saḥ vidyātaḥ tam janayati. (8)

‘He is his spiritual father.’

Krodhāt gataḥ ācāryaḥ. (9)

‘The teacher left because of anger.’

Sarvam nityam prameyatvāt. (9)

‘Everything is eternal because it can be imagined.’

Anāditvāt nirguṇatvāt paramātmā ayam avyayaḥ. (9)

‘Because of beginninglessness and characteristiclessness this highest soul is imperishable.’


In comparisons with:


comparatives: S-tara AbX: ‘more S than X’


positives of any Adj


words expressing superiority on inferiority: varam ‘better than’, adhika ‘exceeding’, pūrva ‘superior’, atiricyate ‘to excel’, parihīyate ‘to be inferior’, ...


words meaning other or different: anya, itara, apara, bhinna, ...




Na asti anyaḥ dhanyataraḥ loke mattaḥ tvattaḥ ca. (10)

‘There is no happier man in the world the you and I.’

Vajrāt api kaṭhorāṇi cetāṃsi. (11)

‘Hearts, even harder than diamond.’

Senā-śatebhyaḥ adhikāḥ buddhiḥ mama. (12)

‘My mind is outweighing hundreds of armies.’

Na itaḥ anye vidyante. (13)

‘Nor are there others but these.’