Genitive (G)









G designates:




qualification of a Subst.


(2) is most often substituted with a cp


the whole or part of which is spoken of


the object of some : smṛ ‘to remember’, day ‘to have pity’, anukṛ ‘to imitate’ and meaning longing for. (Also constructed with A)


the object of some of fullness, repletion, satisfaction such as pūrayati, tṛp, tuṣ, ... (more often constructed with I)


many Adj, such as full, skilled, able, ...




Ācāryasya granthaḥ. (1)

‘The teacher’s book.’

Rājaḥ puruṣaḥ = Rāja-puruṣaḥ. (2 & 3)

‘The kings man.’

Ardham nagarasya. (4)

‘Half of the town.’

Yajñasya avayavaḥ. (4)

‘Part of the sacrifice.’

Hā, deva Nanda, smarati te Rākṣasaḥ prasādānām. (5)

‘Ah, king Nanda, Rākṣasa is well aware of your marks of kindness.’

Vaktram āpūryate áśrūṇām. (6)

‘The face is bathed with tears.’

Dhanasya pūrnam. (7)

‘Full of treasures.’


D-like G:

In sentences with nominal predicate G denotes the remote object (never D).


Used with Adj such as friendship, enmity, fitness, unfitness, good, evil, ...


Used sometimes with


G is allowed as alternative to D of concern.




Iha amutra ca sādhvīnām patiḥ ekā gatiḥ. (8)

‘For virtuous wives the only path to follow here and hereafter is their husband.’

Atīva saḥ mama priyaḥ. (9)

‘He is very dear to me.’

Kim asya bhikṣoḥ kriyatām. (10)

‘What is to be done for this monk?’

Mayā tasya abhayam pradattam. (11)

I have offered him safety.’


Ab-like G:

G is sometimes used instead of G with meaning asking, wishing, taking, receiving, ... hearing, learning, ... and being afraid of.


the time after something has happened (usually restricted to som fixed terms as cirasya, cirasya kālasya = cirāt ‘after a long time’, muhūrtasya = muhūrtāt ‘immediately’.)




Tava sarve hi bibhyati. (12)

‘All are afraid of you..’


Absolute G, (often concessive):

GX GPart ... : ‘although X is Part ...’




Paśyataḥ te mariṣyāmi. (14)

‘Although you see it, I shall die.’



G is often used with Ger and PPP.