Locative (L)









L of the spot where designates:


being within, in


a surface, trodden or touched: on, upon, over, at


the dominion of territory: in, at, on


something very near though no directly touched: near, on, about


expressive of among, amid




Gaṅgā-ambhasi viharan. (1)

‘Sporting in the waters of Ganges.’

Rāsabhaḥ kaścit tatra śmaśāne dṛṣṭaḥ. (2)

‘An ass was seen on that cemetery.’

Rājagṛhe meṣa-yūtham asti. (3)

‘In the royal palace there was a flock of rams.’

Ā seduḥ Gaṅgāyām pāṇḍu-nandanāḥ. (4)

‘The sons of Paṇḍu sat down near Ganges.’

Abhramat ca paura-jāna-padeṣu iyaṃ vārttā. (5)

‘And this report spread among the townsmen and countrymen.’


L of the spot whither attends to :


of moving: to go, to start, to lead, to send


to enter


to fall on or in


to submerge in


to throw in


to place, to put in, upon


to ascend


to strike, to hit


exclusively with falling, throwing, placing, putting, e.g. pat, kṣip, ny-as, ni-veśayati, sthāpayati.




Saḥ aṭavyāṃ gataḥ. (6)

‘He set out to the forest.’

Tvayā saha vahnau praviśāmi. (7)

‘With you i will go into the fire.’

Reṇuḥ patati āśrama-drumeṣu. (8)

‘The dust falls on the trees of the hermitage.’

Khaṭvāyām ca na vahnim upadadhyāt. (11)

‘Nor shall he put fire under his bedstead..’


L is also used:

with the person with whom one dwells, stays


when “keeping close to” one’s precept, principle, judgment, meaning observing, obeying, ...


as denoting the thing touched: fastening at e.g. bandh, clinging e.g. lag, śliṣ, sañj ... leaning on, trusting, relying on, seizing by, falling at one’s feet, ...


when: in him ... is much skill etc


when denoting the circumstances under which the action comes to pass (esp. with time).


when denoting at which distance on thing or fact is from another


denoting towards which something is done or on account of which (aka nimittasaptamī)


denoting in which respect


the aim reached




Gurau vasati. (15)

‘He dwells with his spiritual father.’

Na me śāsane tiṣṭhasi. (16)

‘You do not obey my order.’

Viṣayeṣu abadhyata. (17)

‘He was attached to sense objects.’

Sarvam saṃbhāvayāmi, asmin asādhyam api sādhayet. (18)

I may expect all of him, he can do impossibilities.’

Eṣu vāsareṣu. (19)

‘In these days.’

Etasmin vayasi. (19)

‘In this age.’

Kāle. (19)

‘In due time.’

Sahasra-aśvīne vā itaḥ svarge lokaḥ. (20)

‘Heaven, indeed, is from this world at a distance of a thousand journeys on horseback.’

Itaḥ me ṣaṣṭi-yojanyām gṛham. (20)

‘My house is at sixty yojana-s from here.’

Arhasi kṛpām kartum mayi. (21)

‘You must have pity on me.’

Adhikaḥ bale. (22)

‘Superior in strength.’

Jale bālam kṣipati. (23)

‘He throws the child into the water.’


D-like L:

with of giving, promising, buying, selling, telling


with words of striving after, wishing, resolving


with of appointing to, ordaining, enjoining, permitting


with words meaning able, fit




Nāma cakruḥ mahā-khage. (24)

‘They gave name to a great bird.’

Prayatitam rājye mayā tava. (25)

‘I have coveted your kingdom.’

Patitve varayāmāsa tam. (26)

‘She choose that man to be her husband.’

Bhavān śaktaḥ parirakṣaṇe. (27)

‘You are able to guard.’


Absolute L:

LX LPart ... : ‘at/when X is Part ...’




Saptāhe pūrṇe paṇḍitaḥ gṛham gataḥ. (28)

‘When the week was completed, the scholar went home.’