Dative (D)









D designates:


the purpose or aim striven at


the thing wished for


the action intended


the destination (also constructed with A and L)


the time to come, when a limit of something to be done




Ācāryaḥ Avataṃsakasūtra-paṭhanāya granthālayam gataḥ. (1)

‘The teacher went to library to [hear] the reading of Avataṃsakasūtra.’

Na Ayodhyāyai, na rājyāya spṛhaye. (2)

‘I do not long for Ayodhyā, nor for the kingdom.’

Ārta-trāṇāya vaḥ śastraṃ na prahartum anāgasi. (3)

‘Your weapon serves to protect the afflicted, not hurt the innocent.’

Pāṭaliputrāya Karabhakam preṣayāmi. (4)

‘I will send Karabhaka to Pāṭaliputra.’

Mayā vatsarāya nivartanīyaḥ nirargalaḥ turaṃgamaḥ visarjitaḥ. (5)

‘I have set at entire liberty the horse, that it might be brought back after a year.’


The D of concern denotes:

the person or thing concerned by the action, in whose behalf or against whom it is done, or who is anyhow interested by it:


with transitive as: giving, offering, showing, telling, speaking, doing, wishing ...


with intransitive as: pleasing, bowing, submitting, appearing, ...


In both (7) & (8) the D may also be constructed with other cases, most often G or L.


with meaning anger, jealousy, injuring, discontent, ... the object of animosity is put in the D


with and nouns meaning befitting, suiting, counterpoising, ... are constructed with D




Śiṣyāya grantham dadāti ācāryaḥ. (7)

‘The teacher gives the book to the pupil.’

Rocate mahyam. (8)

‘It pleases me.’

Tasmai na druhyet kadā cana. (10)

‘Him he should never offend.’

Narakāya rādhyati. (11)

‘He becomes fit for hell.’