General remarks

There are in CS:

3 numbers (sg, du, pl)

3 genders (m, n, f)

8 cases (N, A, I, D, Ab, G, L, V)


S = DcS- DcA


vocalic declension (ADc)


S = DcS- DcA DcK


consonantal declension (KDc)


Stem gradation:

ADc show no gradation in S



KDc may show gradation in S:


strong S (SKS, ) : NAV/sg, NAV/du and NV/pl


middle S (MKS, ) : IDAb/du and IDAbL/pl


weakest S (WKS): the rest



(note:this gradation has nothing to do with vowel gradation)


Many S show only two gradations in which case MKS and WKS form one the weak S group, also denoted by WKS since there is no risk of confusion.


Sometimes the pure stem (PKS, ) has to be noted specifically when it is not equal to neither of SKS,  MKS  nor WKS


The symbols SS, PS,  MS  and WS are used whenever the KDc context is obvious.


All S with gradation are in this work quoted as PS which most often equal SS