√ 2 ci, “note, observe”

1 ci

2 ci



I. cayate etc. V.B

III. cikéṣi etc. V.B. (cikīhi AV., ciketu TS., cikéthe RV., cikitām AV., cíkyat V., acikayus B.)

V. cinoti cinute E.+


cīyate etc. C


Simple Future: ceṣyati E


√-Ao: ácet ácidhvam RV

-s-Ao: aceṣṭa C


cikāya etc. V.+


cikīṣati -te etc. V.B.S

Verbal Nouns

PPP: citá V.+; Inf: cetum E.+; 2Abs: -citya E.+


-caya V.+


-cāyin E.+


-cetavya E.+


-ceya E.


-cayana C.


-cít RV.


cetṛ́ V.B.


-cira RV.


cāyaka C.


citi B.+







Compare √ cāy, which appears to be an early specialized form of this root; cay ( BR. 3 ci) is another. The forms and derivatives of √ 2 ci are not everywhere well separable from those of √ 1 ci, and there is reason to suspect the two roots of being ultimately one; words with the prefixes nis and vi, specially, are probably best referred to √ 1 ci, with the meaning “take apart”, and so “resolve, decide”.


cikéti , cinoti, cinute (cayate) observe, perceive, notice, seek for, search.


anu remember.

apa respect, honour.

ni notice, observe.

nis & vinis examine, consider, fix upon.

pari search, examine, find out, discover. P. get acquainted.

vi discern, distinguish, make clear, illustrate, examine, try, look for, strive after. pravi examine, try.

sam deliberate, ponder.

Cf. ápacita, abhiniścita, nicitá 2, niṃścita, paricita 2, viniścita.